Posts Tagged ‘charge’

The electric, flashy development of tadpoles

// July 22nd, 2011 // 1 Comment » // Recent Research

Tufts researcher Dany Adams was filming the development of tadpole embryos, when she decided to leave the camera hooked up to a microscope going overnight. She was hoping to get some good time-lapse footage. What she got was bioelectric patterns which flashed across the developing tadpole face, outlining the future positions of eyes, nose and mouth.

“I was completely blown away.” said Dany, Ph.D, according to the Tufts press release. “I think I thought something like, ‘OK, I know what I’ll be studying for the next 20 years.” It had never been seen before, and was published in the August issue of Developmental Dynamics. Watch the video below.

“When a frog embryo is just developing, before it gets a face, a pattern for that face lights up on the surface of the embryo,” said Dany. “We believe this is the first time such patterning has been reported for an entire structure, not just for a single organ. I would never have predicted anything like it. It’s a jaw dropper.”

Bioelectric signals cause cells to form patterns marked by differences in pH levels and membrane voltage, according to the researchers. The tadpoles were stained with a reporter dye that caused negatively charged areas to shine brightly while other areas look dark.

There were three bioelectric waves they saw in the footage.

xenopus

It's Xenopus! Image by Luis Beltran

First, a wave of negative ions flashed across the whole embryo at about the same time as cilia formed, tiny hairs which allow the embryo to move.

The second flash was a patterning that matched shape changes that were soon to occur in the face region. Bright areas, negative ions, show places where the surface will fold in.

Thirdly, localised regions of bright, negative areas formed, grew and disappeared without disturbing the existing pattern. At this point, the embryo began to elongate.

If bioelectric signalling is important to embryo development, you would expect development to be altered by screwing around with the signal process – and that’s exactly what happened. The researchers disrupted signalling by inhibiting a protein involved called ductin, which transports hydrogen ions. Some embryos grew two brains, others had unusual nasal or jaw development, and so on.

Interesting, I guess, but a bit sad for the baby tadpoles imho. Plus, I feel like it doesn’t take much to disrupt embryo development. Take away any protein that’s switched on at that sensitive time and development takes a detour…

All the same, bioelectricity may play a crucial role in embryo growth. Laura Vandenberg, another author on the paper, said “developmental biologists are used to thinking of sequences in which a gene produces a protein product that in turn ultimately leads to development of an eye or a mouth. But our work suggests that something else – a bioelectrical signal – is required before that can happen.”

ResearchBlogging.org

Vandenberg, L., Morrie, R., & Adams, D. (2011). V-ATPase-dependent ectodermal voltage and ph regionalization are required for craniofacial morphogenesis Developmental Dynamics, 240 (8), 1889-1904 DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.22685

CERN trap 38 atoms of antimatter

// November 18th, 2010 // Comments Off on CERN trap 38 atoms of antimatter // Recent Research

Facility at CERN

For the first time ever, antimatter has been trapped by a magnetic field allowing it to be studied in detail.

The 38 atoms were antihydrogen, theoretically the same as hydrogen but having the opposite charge. Where hydrogen is made of one proton, one electron, antihydrogen is made with an antiproton and a positron.

Antihydrogen was first made at CERN in 1995, and in 2002 they could make large enough quantities for study. The problem is that matter and antimatter annihilate each other when they meet, so the antihydrogen is short lived. The ALPHA project has changed that. Using strong and complex magnetic fields stops the antimatter from coming in contact with any matter.

This technique allowed the antihydrogen to last for a tenth of a second, plenty of time to study the properties of antimatter.

Antimatter has always been a bit of a mystery. During the Big Bang, equal amounts of antimatter and matter should have been made. But for some reason, everything around us is made of matter and the antimatter seems to have disappeared.

The research was published yesterday in Nature online.

ResearchBlogging.orgAndresen, G., & et al (2010). Trapped antihydrogen Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature09610

Here’s the press release from CERN, and here’s a neat video all about it.

Solar powered laptop bags and handbags

// August 5th, 2010 // 7 Comments » // Science Art, Science at Home

Voltaic Generator Bag

Winter sun is something worth enjoying. Spreading out lizardlike and soaking up UV rays to make Vitamin D is an excellent endeavour. I often take my laptop out with me and blog in the sunlight.

Today as I was doing just that, my laptop started complaining about low charge. It made me wonder if you could solar power your laptop. Turns out you can.

You can have a panel on just about anything. Most only charge small devices like a phone, but you can have one on your desk, one on your bike, or even one on your hat (powering a small fan which spins faster as it gets more sun.)

The one pictured is a laptop bag with solar panels on the front, and it’s capable of charging a laptop. They charge a battery inside the bag, which you can run your laptop on.

Solar Handbag

I did a bit more snooping, and I found some fashionable handbags that do a similar job. These were sold on auction in mid July (one of a kind, probably couldn’t have afforded them anyway), and feature sexy solar panels that can charge your ipod, camera or phone as you walk.

It’s part of the portable light project, which has sadly finished. They create flexible photovoltaic textiles for use in developing countries. The material lends itself to traditional weaving and sewing, so people can incorporate the technology into their own culture. Open source electricity.

The solar units charge during the day, and at night work as lamps. They also have a USB port to charge phones, making it easier for traveling artists to connect with stores or midwives to seek clinic advice and diagnosis.

A mighty fine endeavour, but I’d be happy with something that quickly charged my iPod nano because he has problems. It leaks charge all over the joint like a poorly toilet trained puppy. I leave it switched off and locked in my bag, and next time I try to use it, it’s gone to Davey Jones locker. Perhaps it be time to update to an iPhone…






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